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The Demise of ’90s Feminist-Zine Tradition


Within the late Nineties, studying about one thing obscure took effort. You’d must make your option to the proper bookstore or know the edgy older one who would possibly flip you on to a particular file, a guide, or a zine. These pre-internet objects had been group builders; if you happen to met somebody who had heard of the precise factor you had been into, you made a really cool buddy. That was Bitch journal. I don’t keep in mind the primary second I learn it, however it was omnipresent on the earth I inhabited—riot grrrls, punks and hardcore children, ladies’s-studies majors, the LGBTQ group, activists. Bitch wasn’t only a publication—it was an identification marker.

Regardless of occupying a distinct segment nook of the media world, Bitch was extremely influential. A self-described “feminist response to popular culture,” it ran media criticism and cultural commentary on subjects together with fats politics, nonbinary identification, Black feminism, and masculinity, utilizing the confrontational fashion of in-your-face politics typically synonymous with ’90s-era third-wave feminism. It will go on to publish a few of feminism’s most formative writing, together with voices equivalent to Tamara Winfrey-Harris, Joshunda Sanders, and Katherine Cross. Movie star interviews included underground it-girls equivalent to Margaret Cho and Janeane Garofalo. Simply as I sat in a ladies’s-studies class criticizing zines like Bitch for not being numerous sufficient, it dropped an interview with bell hooks.

Bitch not too long ago introduced that it’s going to cease publishing in June. To completely grasp this information requires understanding how a lot it managed to persevere—and the way a lot its ethos has, in methods each apparent and delicate, discovered traction in mainstream media. The story of Bitch is, partially, the story of how feminist publications influenced the protection of gender points writ massive. But it surely’s additionally the story of the difficulties of maintaining unbiased shops afloat, particularly within the face of a feminist backlash. Its evolution displays the tangles inside feminism over the previous a number of many years, and inside the feminist press. And its finish makes pressing the query of what constitutes feminist media at this time, at the same time as the continuing risk to ladies’s rights underscores how a lot we nonetheless want that area.

Bitch launched in 1996, its title a reclamation of a time period used to insult ladies who dwell exterior the expectations of a demure femininity. “If talking my thoughts makes me a bitch, I’m pleased with that,” one of many co-founders, Lisa Jervis, stated in explaining the title. (One other co-founder, Andi Zeisler, has defended the title towards finger-wagging; the journal’s preliminary effort to be integrated was rejected as a result of the title was deemed offensive.) It entered on the peak of zine tradition, and succeeded feminist publications equivalent to Bust Journal (nonetheless in circulation) and Sassy (merged with Teen journal in 1996, which in flip successfully shut down in 2009). It additionally predated and influenced the feminist blogs and shops of the early 2000s to early 2010s, equivalent to Feministe, Racialicious, Feministing (the place I used to be the manager editor from 2009 to 2012), and later Jezebel, the Crunk Feminist Collective, The Hairpin, The Frisky, and Rookie Journal, amongst many others. Together with a slew of gender-centric verticals like Salon’s Broadsheet, Slate’s DoubleX, and Vice’s Broadly, these websites created an ecosystem that has typically been dubbed a “heyday” of feminist media.

Many of those feminist shops have since folded; Bitch managed to survive them. However its period noticed the rise of publications with an specific mission to create house for feminist voices and evaluation—and, extra to the purpose, to name out mainstream shops that had been nonetheless slut-shaming ladies for sexual assault or proclaiming the dying of feminism. Bitch and its friends additionally let younger ladies discover their lives exterior the shiny magazines, which had been pushed by company promoting and thus typically mirrored the very points feminists had been crucial of—weight loss program tradition, the sweetness trade, the wedding-industrial advanced, and luxurious trend. Feminist media stated there was one other means.

Quite a bit has modified since then. Feminism has all the time been messy, its ranks rife with debate about what the struggle, at coronary heart, is absolutely about: For some, it’s straightforwardly about gender equality. For others, it’s a bigger endeavor that considers the numerous aspects of our experiences: race, class, sexuality, sexual identification. These tensions are taking part in out at this time as nicely, with some ladies shunning the “feminist” label in favor of embracing a wider set of social and political points. That broader tack can typically learn as a kind of “post-feminism,” a rejection of a politics singularly targeted on gender development—and, within the media context, of protection that may appear to focus on gender and inclusion on the expense of the fabric situations shaping ladies’s lives. Nonetheless, a lot of that critique is lobbed not at indie feminist media—which have tended to be consciously collaborative of their method—however at what’s perceived as mainstream feminism, pleasant to firms and fast to churn out a simple empowerment slogan.

The media trade has additionally modified. Sexual assault, allegations of office harassment, the struggles of working moms—all problems with long-held concern to feminists—are, general, coated responsibly and with critical assets by well-funded journalistic shops, which additionally make use of columnists providing cogent evaluation from the feminist perspective. Pretty or not, such protection can also be extra prone to be taken by a general-interest public not as marginal, however as central to societal curiosity. (It’s no coincidence that many people who labored in feminist media left for these larger publications. I went to Teen Vogue, Jill Filipovic is writing for CNN, and Dodai Stewart is an editor at The New York Instances, to call only a few.)

Over time, the feminist message has additionally been co-opted, and typically diluted, by the very ladies’s magazines that Bitch and its friends critiqued. Marie Claire, Elle, Cosmopolitansuch glossies, with their give attention to way of life and trend, weren’t explicitly feminist, however have lengthy revealed in-depth journalism on issues that have an effect on ladies’s lives. Their elevated protection of social-justice points, together with physique inclusivity and trans rights, doubled as an implicit recognition that such tales and views had gone mainstream and got here with an viewers that could possibly be captured.

Social media, too, has had an outsize impact, permitting folks to specific their opinions by Twitter threads or Instagram tales, while not having the infrastructure of {a magazine}. These outpourings have changed the stream-of-consciousness weblog posts that outlined early-aughts digital tradition. Web activism can, like feminism itself, typically really feel like a recognition contest, during which infighting and performative one-upmanship, versus earnest and keen debate, are go-to methods. At its greatest, although, the participation of traditionally marginalized voices on-line replicates the critique-from-the-margins place that indie feminist shops held.

So what does feminist media even imply at this time? On the peak of the weblog period, it meant cultural commentary and media criticism—just like a few of what seems on Substack today—during which nearly anyone may make observations about social ills, politics, and tradition. This type of opinion journalism was useful, creating an area for writers and bloggers to suppose, discover, join, argue, and, typically, sure, rage. Many feminist publications sat between journalism and advocacy. As others have argued, the shrinking of those areas is, largely, because of the success of that advocacy. You’re now extra prone to see pockets of feminist writing in lots of totally different locations throughout media—maybe through a specific creator or argument. However that extra distributed imaginative and prescient of feminist media lacks what devoted areas like Bitch gave us: the conviction of being a part of a group with a shared objective, clear fashions for writing persuasively about feminist politics, and the unwavering protection {that a} mission-driven publication can present.

Some shops nonetheless explicitly try this work. Jezebel continues to be round, although it’s maybe much less culturally influential than it was once; Bust continues to be right here too, although it leans closely into way of life. Autostraddle and Salty E-newsletter cater to ladies and trans and nonbinary folks. And Bitch held on for so long as it did as a result of, to its credit score, it took care to achieve out to a brand new technology of readers. However the ecosystem is smaller than it as soon as was. There’s a gap the place Bitch and others had been, at a time when sustained consideration on ladies’s rights is ever extra vital. The cutbacks to the rights of susceptible communities—communities that feminist publications have lengthy coated—proceed: full-scale assaults on reproductive rights, the state-by-state warfare on trans youth, moms being pushed out of the workforce, ladies nonetheless bearing the brunt of care work. Within the 25 years since Bitch was launched, situations have, in some ways, gotten worse for girls, not higher.

In 1988, the soon-to-be writer of Sassy journal advised The New York Instances that she’d present that feminism was a viable enterprise. “Feminism shouldn’t be the property of the ladies’s motion … I’m going to show that you would be able to run a enterprise with feminist rules and become profitable,” she famously concluded. Sassy successfully shut down eight years later. A number of weeks in the past, as folks shared the function Bitch had performed of their feminist upbringing, many decried its closure as the tip of an period, whereas others felt that that period was already lengthy gone. I’m undecided whether or not it’s gone or simply morphing. Mission-driven media include difficulties; staff are typically overworked and underpaid, anticipated to go above and past for the “trigger.” However the objective of an unbiased feminist press, if we are able to determine how you can maintain it, is totally different from mainstream journalism’s; the targeted, typically seemingly area of interest work it does is a vital additive to conventional reporting and op-ed writing, and a examine in a sea of media monopolies. In that context, the folding of venerable publications is a monumental loss. The very purpose we nonetheless want them is usually the very purpose we lose them.



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